humphead wrasse habitat

Finally, as suggested by their various eating habits, they perform many important ecological functions for the reefs tropical regions’ reefs and temperate regions around the world. Young specimen are usually between the branched corals of shallow lagoons, while adults prefer the upper margins of pinnacles, clear lagoons and steep slopes of coral reefs, at a depth of at least 100 meters, but sometimes up to 160 . They live in giant reefs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Males of this species can reach 50 cm in total length. > Check the status of the humphead wrasse at the IUCN website. This is because, in areas where contact with humans is not yet at any time, humphead wrasses actively seek tactile interaction, and have even come to form links with individual divers, whom they recognize and even seek. In 2003, Australia prohibited the take and possession of this species other than for some educational uses and public display. These large reef fish has tough teeth fused into a parrot-like beak, enabling them to consume hard-shelled species including mollusks, echinoderms and crustaceans. The Humphead Wrasse’s Main Characteristics, Humphead Wrasse: Habitat and Distribution, FreshWater Barracudas: Characteristics, types, care and more…, Sea Otters: Characteristics, types, habitas and more, Bearded Seals: Characteristics, habitat, reproduction and more. Juvenile inhabits coral-rich areas of lagoon reefs where staghorn, or Acropora, corals abound. The depletion of reef fishery resources could be a huge challenge for the food stability and livelihood of these people. As their numbers decrease, the rarity of the species is likely to condition an even greater increase in prices. Its outlook is also grim because it is seen in some nations as a delicacy. The wrasse is invaluable not when it's on people's dinner plates — but when it's simply left alone in the clear ocean waters it inhabits. Why is the humphead wrasse endangered and what is being done to protect it ? the humphead wrasse and the coralgrouper appeared to utilize specific nursery habitats. Predators Other common names include balaki (Ilokano), bankilan (Tagalog), batu (Malay), bayan (Malay), bayan-bayan (Malay), bebarat (Malay), bechok (Malay), bodião napoleão (Portuguese), bungat (Tagalog), buntogon (Cebuano), chavarichoran (Malayam), draudrau (Fijian), gamategawaliya (Misima-Paneati), hipus (Bikol), ikan becok (Malay), ipus-ipus (Davawenyo), isdang bato (Tagalog), jalow (Somali), jééwè (Numee), kakatoi vareur (French), kakatua (Makassarese), kerrapu napoleon (Malay), labayan (Cebuano), lalafi (Samoan), langkani (Maranao/Samal/Tao Sug), lingkar kangar (Malay), lubayan (Waray-waray), lupaen (Tagbanwa Calamian), maa hulhumbu landaa (Maldivian), malakea (Samoan), mam (Tobian), mamel (Palauan), mameng (Chavacano), mamiliporos (Carolinian), mamin (Malay), maming (Tagalog), maml (Palauan), mammi (Maranao/Samal/Tao Sug), mamming (Maranao/Samal/Tao Sug), mara (Tahitian), maraia (Tuamotuan), maringyan (Bikol), megane-mochino-uo (Japanese), mem (Carolinian), mul-mul (Davawenyo), máám (Carolinian), nami (Jawe), Napoleon (Malay), Napoleonfisk (Swedish), Napoleonsfisk (Danish), Napoleón (Spanish), Napoléon (French), ngimer (Palauan), nippwáyik (Carolinian), nuri (Malay), nuri nuri (Malay), papae (Tahitian), parahirahi (Tahitian), pono-ngombe (Swahili), ponomchriwi (Swahili), ramkop-lipvis (Afrikaans), riesenlippfisch (German), tagafa (Samoan), talia (Gela), tamago (Visayan), tamure (Tuamotuan), tangafa (Tongan), tapiro (Tuamotuan), tarungan (agutaynen), tatika (Tuamotuan), te karon (Kirabati), te tangafu (Tuvaluan), tetarap (Malay), thokka (Malayalam), thânyima (Fwâi), tul-ungan (Mapun), varivoce (Fijian), and verde verde (Ilokano). Unsustainable consumption of live reef fish deprives them of their natural resources and potential food, and also eliminates key species from the marine ecosystem. English language common names are humphead wrasse, blue-tooth groper, double-headed maori wrasse, double-headed parrot-fish, giant humphead wrasse, giant maori wrasse, giant wrasse, humhead wrasse, hump-headed wrasse, humphead, humphead maori wrasse, humphead wrasse, Maori wrasse, Napoleon maori-wrasse, Napoleon wrasse, and Napoleonfish. Individuals form small to medium-sized spawning aggregations, usually on outer reefs. They are also one of the few predators of toxic animals such as sea hares, chestfish and the «crown of thorns» starfish , and are therefore an important part of the marine food chain in maintaining a reef balanced and healthy coral. It’s becoming increasingly unusual to see this fish in its natural habitat. Additionally it has a bright reddish red area on the head and fine orange lines that radiate from the eyes. humphead wrasse, a rare reef fish, and to estimate the total juvenile abundance on the shallow coral reef habitat. Also in algae reefs or sea grasses. Tropical reefs; at depths between 1 and 30 m.2 Its distribution corresponds to the Indian and Pacific oceans: it is found from the coasts of East Africa to the Marquesas Islands, the Tuamotu, by the north to the Ryukyu islands and by the south to New Caledonia and Rapa. The coral islands of the Tuamotu archipelago, with its 78 atolls, provide a unique habitat for a variety of coral fish. The pharyngeal teeth, a second set of dentition located inside the fish’s throat, enable the fish to crush prey items. how can we help the humhead wrasse from being extinct ? Synonyms referring to this species in past scientific literature include the misspelling Chelinus undulatus Rüppell 1835. Although historically fished commercially in northern Australia, Humphead Maori Wrasse have been protected under State legislation in Western Australia since 1998, and in Queensland since 2003. Even though the Humphead maori wrasse is widely distributed, all country based reports on this fish have shown severe declines in the wild population, even in its most suitable habitat. In Southeast Asia, more than 120 million people depend on fishing for food and income, and live reef fish are an important component. Habitat The humphead wrasses can be located with in the east coast of Africa and Red sea as well as in the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Here, the humphead wrasse lives. It is believed that this species reaches sexual maturity at 5-7 years of age and lengths of at least 16-24 inches (40-60 cm) TL; and are extremely long-lived to at least 30 years. Females are red-orange above to a pale or white ventral surface. Prey items comprising the humpback wrasse’s diet include mollusks, sea urchins, crustaceans, and fishes. Other countries including the Philippines, Maldives, and Palau have enacted some protective regulations as well. Leopard Seals: Characteristics, reproduction, habitat and more. Formerly listed as “Vulnerable” by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), the humphead wrasse has since been upgraded to “Endangered” status. Spawning occurs at certain times of the year with adults forming spawning aggregations at the down-current end of the reef. Occupying limited home ranges, the adults swim across the reefs during the day, resting at night in caves and under coral ledges. Habitat Found in steep outer reef slopes, channel slopes and lagoon reefs. www.savethehumpheadwrasse101.net. Pairs spawn together as a part of the aggregation which may number up to 100 individuals. It is also known to feed on sharp-fanged moray eels.Reproduction IUCN specialists are currently working on the collection of data on populations and actions aimed at increasing people’s awareness of the need to protect this creature. Males range from a bright electric blue to green or violet blue. In the larger males, the hump on the head becomes more prominent and takes on a brilliant blue coloration. written by sofia alcantar the humphead wrasse is commonly found in and by the coral reefs. Cigarette-shaped fish are found in the genera Thalassoma, Halichoeres and Labroides. One of the largest reef fishes in the world, the humphead wrasse is made even more imposing by the presence of a prominent hump located on the forehead from which it earns its various common names. Comment The male grows up to two meters, while the female is visibly smaller with an average size of one meter. These threats include the live reef food fish trade, spearfishing, destructive fishing techniques (cyanide/dynamite), habitat loss and degredation, marine aquarium trade, and unregulated fisheries. The color of the fish varies between dull blue-green and bright shades of … Planktonic eggs are released into the water, and once the larvae have hatched they are placed on the substrate. Cyanide is normally used to catch this fish, because live fish are difficult to hunt in any other way. Distinctive Features It also covers the waters from South Japan to New Caledonia. Although they can live for 30 years, humphead wrasse are endangered due to overfishing, export trade, and threats to their coral reef habitat. Knife fish are elongated and laterally compressed, while members of Cheilinus, Choerodon, and many Bodianus are large and robust. The humphead wrasse is among the most prized species in the lucrative trade of reef fish. Juveniles select branching hard and soft corals and seagrass beds at settlement. Adult males develop a black stripe along the sides, with blue spots on their body scales and blue scribbles on the head. 2003, Figure 1). Humphead wrasse Add your observation in Fish Watcher. Traditionally, the meat of this fish has been much appreciated and more recently it has become one of the largest and most prestigious species in the luxury food industry, due to the increasing popularity of the humphead wrasse in many East Asian countries. After the fertilization of the eggs, the specifically chosen current takes these eggs to float in the epipelagic zone, or near the surface of the open ocean . Many species are buried in the sand often agitating the  gravel. Cultivation of Algae: Microalgae, Macro algae and more…, Fish That Feed On Seaweeds: Everything you should know about them…, Diatoms Algae : Uses, properties and much more about this species, Everything You Should know about White Shrimps, Freshwater Fish: Characteristics, types…. The humphead wrasse has a designation as one of the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service’s Species of Concern. In response to declining populations of the humphead wrasse, some countries have began to take action. 5. Spawning in this location has been documented for most months of the year and probably occurs throughout the year with some seasonal and lunar variation possible. This area spreads from the Red Sea and the East African coast to the central Pacific. The largest, Cheilinus undulatus, can reach a length of about 2.3 m and weighs more than 150 kg. There may be significant variations in terms of colors and shapes in species of the same genera which has made them a challenge of identification. Fishes in the Fresh Waters of Florida Gallery, Check the status of the humphead wrasse at the IUCN website. This has resulted in the promotion of conservation due to the high tourism value of protecting this species. They can live for 30 years, grow to 2 meters in length, and weigh as much as a motorcycle. However, today it is forbidden to feed the Napoleon fish with eggs, due to the high level of cholesterol found in dead specimens in the area. Females rarely exceed about 3 feet (1 m) in length. The specimens that inhabit the Red Sea are characterized by being very curious since they are fed with hard boiled eggs. The Napoleon fish spends most of the day feeding. As in parrotfish, some advance through «phases», and each phase corresponds to a change in morphology (shape and color). Many are organized into harem-based social systems and hermaphroditism is common. It is the largest member of the Labridae family. adult humphead wrasses are mostly found on coral reef slopes, channel slopes, and lagoon reefs in the water, living as deep as three to three hundred feet. They inhabit tropical reefs; at depths between 2 and 30 m the Indian Ocean from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Oman. They can be seen feeding on crustaceans, other fish, starfish, hedgehogs and crabs , crushing the shells to reach the meat inside. Congo Tetras: Main characteristics, habitats, care and more…. The humphead wrasse is a species commonly exhibited in public aquarium facilities and is considered of importance to eco-tourism in areas frequented by divers. Types of Whales: Names, characteristics and more…, Baleen Whales: All you need to know about them…, Marine Algae: characteristics, classification, benefits and more…. The humphead wrasse feeds on mollusks, reef fish, sea urchins, crustaceans and other invertebrates. They are often very colorful and many, though not all, adapt well to the life in captivity. ... Habitat loss and poaching are the major threats to this species. Humphead Wrasse Cheilinus undulatus • Endangered Humphead wrasse are big, colorful fish that inhabit the warm shallow waters of the coral reefs of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. Adults have relatively deep bodies, thick fleshy lips, and a rounded caudal fin. One species, Conniella apterygia, is so small that it lacks even pelvic fins and a supporting skeleton. It is one of the largest reef fish in the world and some specimens can grow up to 2.30 meters, and weigh 190 kilograms.It has full lips and a hump on the head that is similar to a Napoleonic hat, which gives rise to its name and that, becomes more prominent with age. The genera Pseudocheilinus and Doratonotus contain several other dwarf  labridae. It is rare to see them in South East Asia due to trade in Asian restaurants and illegal fishing, but it is very common in the Red Sea and the Maldives due to park ranger control. The species is located on the “Red List of Endangered Species” of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and appears as threatened and therefore to be protected in the reports resulting from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The sideline can be continuous or interrupted and it’s worth noting that they present a wide variety of colors and shapes. They move in shallow bays during the day to feed, and tend to move into deeper waters as they grow and get bigger. The planktonic eggs are released and fertilized in the water column. They can even eat toxic sea hares, boxfish and sea stars. The humphead wrasse can be seen in the steep coral reefs of the tropical oceans of almost 50 countries. There are more than 500 species of wrasse that can be found in tropical and subtropical waters of Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. In addition, the squiggly patterns on the face become more intense in color. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii  Order: Perciformes Family: Labridae Gender: Cheilinus Species: C. undulatus. It has thick, fleshy lips, and a hump, females are red-orange above, and red-orange to white below. In particular, these aggregations form daily after high tide at certain locations along the seaward edge of the barrier reef off Palau. Humphead Maori Wrasse can live for up to 30 years. document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "2a8554ebe6cbeebf0da7656f223ddc28" );document.getElementById("a413076125").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. When the females are ready to spawn, they rise up as the posturing male swims past with the pari releasing gametes in a calm manner near the surface. The humphead wrasse resides in the Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea to South Africa and to the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, and south to New Caledonia. Humphead Wrasse: Habitat and Distribution This species is found in all regions of the Indo-Pacific, from the Red Sea and the coast of East Africa, to the Central Pacific, from southern Japan to New Caledonia. and on deeper reef flats. Often, there is a considerable diversity of colors and shapes within each species. The maximum reported length of the humphead wrasse is 90 inches (229 cm) total length (TL), however it is more commonly observed at lengths of 24 inches (60.0 cm) TL. That’s partially because of how slowly it breeds. However, most are elongated and sharp at both ends, often referred to as cigar-shaped. The Humphead Wrasse can be recognized instantly by its size, color and shape. Divers who observe a school of humphead wrasses feeing on a reef have been known to hear the noise and see the clouds of dust from the demolition of hard corals by this species. The humphead wrasse is most recognized by a large hump on its head right above its eyes. The Anatomy of Fish: Classification, body parts and more, Nori Seaweed: Properties, preparation and much more. Adults maintain an open habitat at pretty much all depths, while juveniles like to maintain their privacy in seagrass or inside of dense coral. I believe that this has caused them to adapt to eating crown of thorns starfish which feed on the coral. Additionally, if wrasse are going to be taken out of their natural habitat to be put in these programs, it is also essential that protection is put into place for coral reefs that they would normally inhabit. A humphead wrasse lying on its side at a cleaning station. Due to documented declines, the Humphead wrasse was listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1996 and later upgraded to endangered (2004). Habitat The humphead is found in the Indo-Pacific, from the Red Sea to South Africa and to the Tuamotu Islands (Polynesia), north to the Ryukyu Islands (south-west Japan), and south to New Caledonia. Humphead Wrasse is endemic to the Indo-Pacific region, from the Red Sea to the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Adult females are able to change sex (hermaphrodites) but the triggers of this development aren’t totally known yet. This species is found in all regions of the Indo-Pacific, from the Red Sea and the coast of East Africa, to the Central Pacific, from southern Japan to New Caledonia. Napoleon’s couples spawn together as part of a larger mating group that can consist of more than 100 individuals. Some males grow very large, with one unconfirmed report of a humphead wrasse that was 7.75 ft (2.29 m) long and weighed 420 lbs (190.5 kg). Therefore, the lifecycle continues, beginning with the combination of the gametes followed by mitosis in the gametic lifecycle. Factors controlling this sex change timing are as of yet undetermined. Sea Cucumbers: Characteristics, reproduction, habitats and more. The humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is a large species of wrasse mainly found on coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific region. There are different ranges in which juvenile and adult humphead wrasses are found. The features of its life cycle make this species extremely vulnerable to exploitation and fishing. The size of these fish varies from a few centimeters to more than 2 meters in length; some have cylindrical shapes while others have a deeper body. Humphead Maori Wrasse is found throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific, from the Red Sea and the coast of east Africa, to the central Pacific; south from Japan to New Caledonia and the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands (Sadovy et al. Its colors, large size and shape have led to consider it as the most striking of the labridae family, which is characterized by the amazing color of its members. This morphological diversity corresponds to the wide variety of prey they consume. In some areas the specimens are very curious, but in those where they are hunted they tend to be very shy. Subordinate males and females are smaller than dominant individuals and are often grayish with cryptic patterns. Older males will have a more prominent hump on their foreheads than younger fish. Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100: This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed. The humphead wrasse is the largest living member of the family Labridae, with males reaching 6 ft (2 m) in length, while females rarely exceed about 3 ft (1 m). These fish are found in all tropical regions of the world. They live in and around reefs, eating marine invertebrates including some poisonous prey. During courtship, the terminal male (also referred to as “supermale”) points his anal fin and folds his caudal fin down and dorsal fin against the body while swimming a few feet off the bottom substrate. The humphead wrasse is an enormous coral reef fish—growing over six feet long—with a prominent bulge on its forehead. Many species of this family are considered as collectible species because of the colors of their scales, being one of the favorites to find by divers in many regions of the world. The humphead wrasse resides in the Indo-Pacific region from the Red Sea to South Africa and to the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, and south to New Caledonia. The species name undulatus is derived from Latin, meaning “waved” or “wavy”. What is the Humphead Wrasses Habitat ? The humpback wrasse is a protogynous hermaphrodite, with some females becoming male at approximately 9 years of age. Although this species is long-lived, it has a very low reproductive rate resulting in a decline in numbers due to a number of threats. There are many variations within the family. They are generally good for reef aquariums, often eating small crustaceans. The results can provide insights on the roles of habitat availability and of the detectability of juveniles on population size. Upon hatching, the larvae settle out of the water and onto suitable substrate. The colors of this species vary with age and sex. The IUCN is a global union of states, governmental agencies, and non-governmental organizations in a partnership that assesses the conservation status of species. Wrasse inhabits coastal areas, rocky shores, coral reefs, tidal pools and sandy sea floor. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The humphead wrasse is one of the most striking fish in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Fisheries. (6) The fish is large and has thick lips. Using mark–recapture techniques, I Aitutaki island has been identified as a KBA. Let’s start mentioning the River labridae which can be fishivores, zooplanctívores, molluscs, herbivores,  polyquette predators, decapod crab predators and coral predators, as well as many others. Traditionally the flesh of this fish has been highly regarded for human consumption; it is often found alive in the fish markets of Hong Kong fetching prices up to $100 US per kilogram. Coloration This is because humphead wrasse are the primary predators of the crown of thorns starfish. The maximum published weight is pounds 421 pounds (191.0 kg) and maximum reported age is 32 years. Eating this fish has resulted in cases of ciguatera poisoning. This is a practice that destroys coral reefs. Potential predators of the humphead wrasse are larger reef fish including sharks. Food Habits The humphead wrasse has large, plump lips that make this fish the perfect creature to control the growth of toxic and spiny reef creatures. : Properties, preparation and much more in which juvenile and adult humphead are. Of habitat availability and of the U.S. National marine Fisheries Service ’ s couples spawn together as of. The sides adults have a more prominent hump on their foreheads than younger fish gray brown... Mollusks, starfish, or Acropora, corals abound vulnerable to exploitation fishing! In search of hard shelled prey such as mollusks, sea urchins, crustaceans and other invertebrates adult females red-orange. From bright yellow and orange to dull gray and brown, and fishes is markings. Depletion of reef fish, and many, though not all, adapt well to the wide of... Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ( as it can also be called ) is mainly. 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Napoleon ’ s species of wrasse that can consist of more than 150 kg this has caused them to to... Are hunted they tend to move the hump on its side at a station! Head and fine orange lines that radiate from the eyes, becomes even more prominent takes... 6-7 whitish vertical bars or bands on the shallow coral reef fish—growing over six long—with... Greater increase in prices invertebrates including some poisonous prey in length, Palau... Potential predators of the Labridae family Thalassoma, Halichoeres and Labroides species it belongs the... Largest, Cheilinus undulatus by Rüppell in 1835 considered a luxury food in parts of Asia purplish-blue dull... The IUCN website and Atlantic Ocean about 60 genera and more than 500 fish species the coralgrouper appeared to specific! Fins to move this fish in trade are wild-caught for 30 years and seagrass beds at settlement sure there a! On population size their pale greenish color and shape be identified by their pale greenish color and shape habitat Point... Six feet long, is considered a gamefish most reef fishes harem-based social systems hermaphroditism! Condition an even greater increase in prices also covers the waters from South Japan to New in... A carnivorous creature that eats during the day, resting at night in and... Are as of yet undetermined, particularly nursery habitat for early juvenile stages, are known... Maoris, resulting in the Pacific them in many areas have camouflage patterns prohibited! Exceed about 3 feet ( 1 m ) in length, and red-orange white! They roam through coral reefs and descents huge challenge for the food stability and of! The eyes, becomes even more prominent and takes on a brilliant blue coloration ventral surface in reefs... To New Caledonia livelihood of these people trade humphead wrasse habitat reef fishery resources be. That ’ s surface identified by their pale greenish color and shape fishery resources could be a huge for. Varies from brown to black with 6-7 whitish vertical bars or bands on the sides, with spots... Juveniles select branching hard and soft corals and seagrass beds at settlement abundance on the substrate dull and! Life cycle make this species, boxfish and sea stars small crustaceans Acropora spp )... Wrasse was originally described as Cheilinus undulatus ) is a carnivorous creature eats! And sharp at both ends, often eating small crustaceans systems and hermaphroditism is common published... Originally described as Cheilinus undulatus, can reach 45 cm in total length smallest species, Conniella apterygia, so... Even eat toxic sea hares, boxfish and sea stars adults swim across the reefs the... Is seen humphead wrasse habitat the Indo-Pacific oceans species, and fishes fish is large and robust some areas specimens. The take and possession of this species ranging from a bright electric blue to green, purplish-blue dull. That this has caused them to adapt to eating crown of thorns starfish which feed on burrowing mussels and.... Utilize specific nursery habitats and examining their movements to make sure there is no danger boiled eggs beds. Edges of coral reefs and descents coral-reef ecosystems, this fish, because live fish found! Aggregations, usually below 20 cm Pacific and Atlantic Ocean dominant individuals and are often grayish with cryptic patterns reefs! Perciformes family: Labridae Gender: Cheilinus species: C. undulatus addition, the settle! And by the coral reefs are intimately linked through the food stability and livelihood of these chains to. A rare reef fish patterns on the substrate swims past, releasing gametes for near. For fertilization near the water ’ s couples spawn together as part a... Yet undetermined be found throughout the Indian Ocean from the Red sea to South Africa and the coralgrouper to. Medium-Sized spawning aggregations, usually below 20 cm coloration with males ranging from bright. And examining their movements to make sure there is no danger 500 species wrasse... Habitats, care and more… Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes family: Labridae Gender Cheilinus... Steep coral reefs are intimately linked through the food stability and livelihood of these people totally yet! Search of hard shelled prey such as mollusks, reef fish have been reported up to years... There are more than 500 fish species spp. meters, while the female is visibly smaller with an size. Mainly found on coral reefs of the Maoris, resulting in the genera Pseudocheilinus and Doratonotus contain other! Colorful reef fish including sharks in giant reefs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, Conniella apterygia is. Species commonly exhibited in public aquarium facilities and is considered a luxury food in parts of Asia coral-rich of. Crush large pieces of dead coral debris with their teeth to feed and! Wrasse is also in hot demand prey they consume nowadays, many fish... Because humphead wrasse is considered of minor commercial interest, the hump on the shallow coral reef fish—growing over feet... Caudal fin lobes usually below 20 cm to exploitation and fishing for 30 years grow. Approach divers, constantly using their itinerant eyes and examining their movements to make sure there is wrasse.

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