The fresco survived the war unscathed, but it was destroyed in the 1950s. You get a real burning lantern to help guide your way through!The waxworks/dummies that you come across every so often are a bit random but I enjoyed making my way through in the pitch black! The two-storey high, airy room was lavishly decorated with stuccoes, half columns, trabeation, balconies and six crystal chandeliers in Neo-Baroque style. After the 1918 revolution and the removal of the Habsburg dynasty, the Royal Palace became the seat of the new regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, Miklós Horthy. Now they are standing somewhat incongruently near their original places. The hall has four windows, two on the southern side and two on the eastern side, with stone benches in the window niches. The northern room is covered by an east-west axial vault while the southern rooms have north-south axial vaults. Einzigartige Gebäude in Budapest – Detaillierte Info über Budapest: Weltkulturerben, Bäder, Brücken, Gebäude, Höhlen, Parke und mehr... von BUDAPEST.COM Inside the palace were two rooms with golden ceilings: the Bibliotheca Corviniana and a passage with the frescoes of the twelve signs of the Zodiac. Ybl also built a new waterworks pumping station, named Várkert-kioszk (Royal Garden Kiosk), and two stair towers against the medieval cortina walls. On the other side, the ballroom was connected to the Buffet Hall through three doors. The Catacombes are situated just off the main square in the castle.Apart fro a welcome relief from a very hot summers day, the Myths surrounding Count Dracula are explained!If you have never been in absolute pitch darkness the caves provide this strange sensation. The remains were buried in 1953 because of conceptional disputes about the possible reconstruction. The room was furnished with a crystal chandelier, an ornate white cocklestove, a table and chairs. The altar table was rescued and re-erected in Pilisvörösvár in 1957. Beste Romantik-Hotels in Budapest bei Tripadvisor: Finden Sie 301.449 Bewertungen von Reisenden, 51.560 authentische Reisefotos authentische Reisefotos und Top-Angebote für 107 Romantische Hotels in Budapest, Ungarn. The three Gothic double lancet windows are considered the most important architectural elements of the tower and the profiles; frames and mullions were restored in a simplified form, using many of the original stones. The interior from the time of Maria Theresa and Franz Joseph was mostly destroyed during World War II and the post-war reconstruction, excluding the Palatinal Crypt, which survived both. In November 1489, Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire sent the relics of John the Almoner to King Matthias Corvinus. The chapel was again mentioned in the Chronicle of Lorenzo de Monacis, which was written around 1390. The palace was first mentioned in 1437, under the name "fricz palotha". The plinth is decorated with two bronze reliefs showing the capture of the earth-works in Zenta and the decisive cavalry charge in the Battle of Zenta in 1697. Only one column survives of this so-called Aula Marmorea.  The Chapel of the Holy Right was situated near the St Sigismund Chapel, in the middle of an inner court. The surviving eastern façade was built from large, finely carved blocks of stone. The restored part of the medieval castle, including the Royal Chapel and the rib-vaulted Gothic Hall, belongs to the exhibition. They are now part of the permanent exhibition of the Budapest History Museum in "Building E" of Buda Castle. The long hall had six windows opening towards Gellért Hill. Photos made after the war show the room with its vaulted ceiling collapsed. The damaged sculpture was restored after the war. The Hauszmann palace existed for around three decades: on 30 December 1916, the building played a part in the coronation ceremony of the last Hungarian king, Charles IV of Hungary. "Building F" is occupied by the National Széchényi Library, the national library of Hungary. He chose Buda Castle as his main residence, and during his long reign it became probably the largest Gothic palace of the late Middle Ages. The ceiling of the Habsburg Room was decorated with a fresco representing the apotheosis of the Habsburg Dynasty. This chapel was decorated with the golden Venetian mosaics of Károly Lotz. The last small room of the Empress, the former Schreib cabinet ("writing room"), with one window opening on to the Danube, later became a simple passageway. The walls are blackened from burning. The ground plan was drawn by Nicolaus Pacassi, with the interior was designed by his follower, Franz Anton Hillebrandt. The larger northern room has three slit windows, one facing west and two facing north, all had iron rails. The spacious, oblong-shaped hall was divided in three, with two pairs of Ionic marble columns supporting architraves. Visit an ancient part of the city and burial grounds layers beneath the modern busy streets. The whole palace was crowned with a dome with a copy of the Crown of St. Stephen at its apex. The first floor is a solid stone wall without any openings and the niche behind it belongs to the Gothic Hall. The court is called Lions Court (or Oroszlános udvar). The work continued at a good pace until 1758, when financial difficulties caused a seven-year break. The southern room is connected to the inner courtyard by a doorway. The most spectacular item was a large stone mantelpiece with Romanesque Revival architectural details and the bust of King Saint Stephen, the first king of Hungary. Oliver A. I. Botar : From European Capital to Ottoman Outpost: The Decline of Buda in the Sixteenth Century, (1987, Spring) LINK: Ungarische Revue, Volume 11, S.53, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Franklin-Verein, 1891. Two flights of stairs led up to the Szent György tér, which was on much higher ground. At the same time however, medieval elements that were uncovered were reconstructed in what was thought their appearance was. In the middle of the longer wall stood an ornate stone mantelpiece with the bust of Franz Joseph. The Royal Gardens on the southern hillside were famous for their precious plants, glass houses and picturesque terraces. Only the 7-metre-high (23 ft) basement section of the original façade remained. Under the reign of King John Zápolya (the last national ruler of Hungary) the palace was repaired. Some engravings show an idealised finished version which never existed. The palatinal court in Buda Castle was the centre of fashionable life and high society in the Hungarian capital. Palatine Joseph decided to convert the crypt into a family mausoleum and commissioned Franz Hüppmann with the task. The castle now houses the Hungarian National Gallery and The Budapest History Museum. Apart fro a welcome relief from a very hot summers day, the Myths surrounding Count Dracula are explained! Although this part of the building belonged to the original palace, it was thoroughly rebuilt by Hauszmann–this stately room was totally his own work. It was connected to another small room, the second dressing room. The Anjou castle's façade was now facing towards the inner palace courtyard, and the long chancel was projecting from the eastern side of the palace. In the early 1900s, the room had a Rococo white-golden stucco decoration with three large chandeliers. The remains were buried under the outbuildings of the Royal Gardens, and Hauszmann protected the medieval pillar by building a brick shaft around it. The king rebuilt the palace in an early Renaissance style. The southern stair tower followed French Renaissance style, resembling a small turreted castle, while the northern stair tower was similar to a Gothic brick donjon (a fortified main tower from a castle, also called a keep). The catacombs of St Callixtus owe their name to the deacon Callixtus, who was appointed cemetery supervisor by Pope Zephyrinus in the third century. Buda Castle ( Hungarian: Budavári Palota, German: Burgpalast) is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest. It is the work of György Vastagh from 1901. All the newly built side walls were plastered and painted white, while the original stone surfaces were left uncovered. The writing room (Írószoba) of Franz Joseph had two windows opening towards the hills of Buda. Fragments of painted geometrical decoration, a common feature on the medieval buildings of Buda, were discovered on the eastern façade, but it was not restored. Asserting that the modernisation in 1952–66 caused irreversible damage, they proposed the partial reconstruction of the façades, including the dome and the Habsburg Steps. Under the angel of Peace is a returning soldier, while under the angel of War there is a dead Ottoman soldier and ancient Hungarian warriors. A surviving church inventory from 1530 shows a wealth of furnishings. A buttress was added and a rectangular tower with two buttresses on its corners. Eberhard Windecke claimed in his Chronicle that Charles II of Hungary was murdered in 1386 in a room from which the royal chapel could be seen. The Hofkriegsrat commissioned Fortunato di Prati to make several plans for the palace, but lack of money hindered their implementation. The foundation stone of the palace was laid on 13 May 1749, which was the Queen's birthday. This never happened, so Prince Eugen remained on his plinth. One lion was broken in two pieces during the war, but it was recreated in the 1950s. It was the only common room of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I. Majestäten ("Bedchamber of Their Imperial and Royal Majesties"). The interior of the palace was left unfinished when work stopped in 1719. The moment was favourable because relations between the Hungarian nobility and the Habsburgs were exceptionally good. The Original Rome … When you think of romantic Rome, mysterious corridors and old crypts may not be the first thing that come to mind. The dracula section is of interest. Only the two colossal Atlas statues survived. The Budapest History Museum is located in the southern wing of Buda Castle, in Building E, over four floors. The White Antechamber (Fehér előterem) is on the first floor of the Baroque wing and was situated south of the throne room. Walking through the tunnel of darkness very creepy. A section of this room was later used as an ice chamber. Die Erkundung der ungarischen Etyek-Weinregion von Budapest an einem halben Tag ist fast unmöglich, wenn Sie kein Auto mieten. Only the foundation and three interconnected barrel-vaulted rooms survive. Spread across the city, they dive in deep to almost 60 feet underground like the catacombs at San Clemente, and run for almost 17 km like the catacombs at San Castillo. In the western forecourt, Hauszmann designed a new neo-Baroque guardhouse and rebuilt the old Royal Stables. Palatine Joseph himself was interred on 13 January 1847. The ribs, pillars, arches and window niches were restored by sculptor Ernő Szakál in 1961–62. Three crystal chandeliers gave light to the elegant stuccoed space. In the city of Rome there are more than sixty catacombs composed of The southern elevation was closed off with a stone balustrade between the pillars and the wall. Postage stamps depicting the castle were issued by Hungary on 26 March 1926 on 1 June 1967 on 30 April 1986. The Neo-Baroque statue was made by sculptor József Róna for the town of Zenta, but the town could not afford the price. In the Baroque era it was called Ankleide-Zimmer Ihrer Majestät der Kaiserin ("Dressing Chamber of HM The Empress") and was part of Maria Theresa's private apartments. This Rome catacombs tour lasts 2 hours and a half and your group won’t be bigger than 18 participants. This is considered one of the biggest disasters of Hungarian military history. To the right and left two similar parlours opened from the room. The Antechamber, on the first floor of the Baroque wing, was the last room of the former private apartments of Francis I. Several drawings from the 1730s and 1740s show the unfinished decaying shell of the simple two-storey blockhouse. The Royal Dining Hall (Fejedelmi ebédlő) opened from the Royal Entrance Hall, and it was the largest room of the private apartments. On 16 October 1944 a Nazi German commando unit, led by Otto Skorzeny, occupied the Royal Palace and forced the regent to abdicate. Small gardens were recreated in the medieval zwingers around the oldest parts of the building. In 1748 Count Antal Grassalkovich, President of the Hungarian Chamber, appealed to the public to finish the derelict palace by means of public subscription. A vaulted room (6.2 × 6.3 m) on the ground floor was still intact in 1820, according to a contemporary drawing. It had three windows opening towards the hills of Buda. It was enlarged again after 1896. The pointed arch was later restored. Diese geführte Besichtigung führt zu ausgewählten Familienkellern von Etyek mit jeweils vier Verkostungen. The furniture consisted of a Rococo parlour suite and paintings. The structure was an open arcade, with pavilions, stairways and ramps, and two blocks of flats. In 1686, two years after the unsuccessful siege of Buda, a renewed Western European Christian campaign was started to take the city. It had three windows facing toward the hills. On 4 May 1849, the Hungarian army, led by Artúr Görgey, laid siege on Buda Castle, which was being defended by General Heinrich Hentzi. See more. The main lobby (Előcsarnok) of the Royal Palace was situated in Hauszmann's Northern Wing On the Danube side. According to contemporary sources, the explosion killed as many as 1,500 Turkish soldiers and caused a wave on the Danube that washed away artillery batteries and guards standing on the opposite shore. The Royal Chapel, with the surviving Lower Church, was likely built at that time. The function of the ballroom was given to another new hall and this room was converted into the main throne hall instead. According to the aggregate statement of Grassalkovich, the costs were 402,679 forints. In 1529 the Ottoman army besieged and occupied Buda again, and the palace was badly damaged. The dead deer was modelled upon a majestic stag killed in 1896 by poachers in the forest owned by Stróbl. Since then the Palatinal Crypt is part of the exhibition of the Hungarian National Gallery. Buda Castle was the last major stronghold of Budapest held by Axis forces during the siege of Budapest between 29 December 1944 and 13 February 1945. In 1810 the palatinal palace was damaged by fire, but in the next decades, plans were made to raise the building with an upper storey, but they were not implemented, although the observatory tower, which hindered the work, was removed. Colosseum underground tour with Roman Forum and Palatine Hill. It was a long, rectangular hall divided into four sections with free standing Ionic columns and two square pillars. In 1892 the old ballroom was rebuilt with a new ceiling and a gallery towards the Lions Court; three of its side walls were preserved. Budapest is well-known for its secrets and beautiful historical sites, but there is one that stands out high among the others, the Buda Castle and the Castle District. A new Neo-Baroque main altar was built in the church in 1899. The intact barrel vault of the northern room was broken by Alajos Hauszmann at the beginning of the 20th century when he filled the cellar with rubble. Horthy lived in the Krisztinaváros wing with his family between the years of 1920 and 1944. Please try again later. The most impressive are the Catacombs of St Callixtus, where 16 popes and some 30 martyrs are buried. Works on the room started in 2019 and are expected to be finished by August 20, 2021.. It had a white-golden stucco decoration with one chandelier and a Rococo cocklestove. The museum was badly damaged during World War II, and the surviving relics were bestowed to other museums. The large-scale reconstruction of the medieval fortifications substantially changed the cityscape of Budapest. The basement of the tower was used as a dungeon; the top floors were probably the treasury of the royal jewels. In 1715, King Charles III ordered the demolition of the ruins. On the vault the coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Hungary can be seen. 2/ago/2013 - Skip the Line: Crypts and Roman Catacombs Small Group Walking Tour - Skip the Line: Crypts and Roman Catacombs Small Group Walking Tour: Photo of Skip the Line: Crypts and Roman Catacombs Small-Group Walking Tour by Viator user Anonymous In August 1820, Elisabeth Karoline, Palatine Joseph's infant daughter was buried in the crypt. If you are a resident of another country or region, please select the appropriate version of Tripadvisor for your country or region in the drop-down menu. The program is named in honour of Alajos Hauszmann, the last major architect of the castle. St Stephen's Chapel, known before as St. Sigismund Chapel, or Castle Church (Szent Zsigmond-kápolna, Vártemplom) was the chapel royal in the western end of this wing, which had no façades, only a door opening onto Lions Court (through an antechamber). Very atmospheric and creepy even if the wax models are a little cheesy. The room had lavish Baroque decorations with half-pillars and gilded stuccoes. Palatine Stephen left the palace on 23 September 1848 when a break between the liberal Hungarian government and the dynasty became inevitable. The chancel was built upon a lower church due to a lack of space on the narrow plateau. There is also one bit you can try and navigate in darkness, we failed. After the marriage of Matthias and Beatrice of Naples in 1476, Italian humanists, artists and craftsmen arrived at Buda. The balcony tower is a two-storey structure standing on a wide stone basement. They are the works of sculptor Miklós Ligeti from 1903. The statues were destroyed there in a rebellion a few years later. Miklós Horler: Budapest műemlékei I, Bp: 1955, pp. A medieval cellar north of the barrel-vaulted rooms, later called Albrecht pince (Albrecht Cellar), is covered with a Gothic brick barrel vault. The fine workmanship of the fishing net is remarkable. It presents the history of Budapest from its beginnings until the modern era. The church had a 21-metre-long (69 ft) nave and an 11-metre-long (36 ft) chancel. ‘Taking the waters’ has been a part of everyday life here for centuries, and the spas are must-see sights in the city. The interior of the palace was decorated and furnished exclusively with works of the leading Hungarian artists of the age. The Royal Entrance Hall (Fejedelmi előterem), on the first floor of the Krisztinaváros Wing, gave access to the rooms of the Private Royal Apartments of King Franz Joseph I. The fountain was made by sculptor Alajos Stróbl. The autonomous Hungarian government intended to create a royal palace to match any famous European royal residence (especially their old rival, Vienna's Hofburg). The furniture consisted of a Rococo parlour suite. One room was meticulously recreated as the Queen's own writing room with her original writing desk and her 219 Hungarian books. This is the biggest of all the Roman catacombs in the city, and for that reason it is very well visited. Memorabilia were collected by Ida Ferenczy, Elisabeth's former lady-in-waiting, Viscountess Pallavicini and Countess Ilona Batthyány. The Turkish defenders consisted of 7,000 men. The cellars stored an ornate wine collection from the Egri wine growing region in the Northern frontier of Hungary. It was connected to another small room, the Frauen Kammer.  The Ottomans allowed the Hungarian royal place to fall into ruins. Matthias Corvinus was usually identified with Hercules by the humanists of his court; the bronze gates were decorated with panels depicting the deeds of Hercules, and a great bronze statue of the Greek hero welcomed the guests in the forecourt of the palace complex, where jousts were held. However, the old banqueting hall proved to be too small, so Hauszmann enlarged the room by knocking down and reconstructing the wall towards the cour d'honneur (which additionally had the Hillebrandt façade). In the middle of the longer side wall, between the two doors, stood a marble mantelpiece. After 1853 stately rooms were designed in a French Rococo style, with white-gold stuccoes and furniture from the Hofburg. On 25 July 2007 Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány chose the King's Cellar as the place to announce the list of the "most important public works projects", financed by European Union funds between 2007 and 2013.. The proportion of the population who were of Jews and Gypsy families increased during the Ottoman rule in Buda.. In 1952 the Hungarian government asked for help from Poland, because they had successfully rebuilt Warsaw and, indeed, other cities. The inner walls of the Baroque palace were actually built upon the old façade. The most important part of Sigismund's palace was the northern wing, known as the Fresh Palace (Hun: Friss-palota). The palace was the last stronghold of the Austrian troops, and became a site of heavy artillery fighting. The former Royal Gardens stairways, pavilions and glass houses, which dated from the turn of the 20th century, had to be sacrificed. The side walls of the hall were decorated in Italian Renaissance style with colossal Corinthian half-columns, stuccoes and lunette openings. It is uncertain whether it was situated on the southern tip of the hill or on the northern elevation, near the Kammerhof. A series of rooms from the medieval castle were unearthed and reconstructed during the post-war rebuilding of Buda Castle in 1958–62. After the Battle of Mohács, the medieval Kingdom of Hungary collapsed. In the 1970s, archeological research continued on the northern and western side of the palace, led by László Zolnay. Budapest - Buda Castle Explorer Urban Adventure - EUR55; Budapest - Bites & Sights Food Tour Urban Adventure - EUR79; Budapest - Best Beers of Budapest Urban Adventures - EUR74 ; Meals Included There are no meals included on this day. The first chapel in the castle was probably built in the 14th century during the reign of Louis I of Hungary. The room was furnished with a crystal chandelier, an ornate white cocklestove and chairs. In Hauszmann's time the walls were largely clad with wallpaper. The Ottoman authorities repaired only the fortifications. The room opened from the Royal Bedroom, at the end of the line of private apartments. The rebuilding spanned forty years, between 1875 and 1912, and caused sweeping changes in topography of the entire area. The building was handed over on 13 May 1770, but the elegant Baroque rooms were considered unsuitable for a nunnery. St Paul's Catacombs: Budapest - See 1,458 traveler reviews, 1,477 candid photos, and great deals for Rabat, Malta, at Tripadvisor. On the western side of the cour d'honneur two smaller buildings were erected, using plans by Weiss and Neuwirth in 1854. In 1526, Buda was plundered by the Ottoman Turks after the Battle of Mohács. He also planned a new carriageway on the western hillside, demolishing the medieval walls and towers of the Újvilág-kert terrace. Buda Castle (Hungarian: Budavári Palota, German: Burgpalast) is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest. The crypt is the only part of the palace that survived the Second World War. Károly Senyei's four Carrara marble busts stood in front of the sidewalls representing King Charles III, Queen Maria Theresa, King Franz Joseph and Queen Elisabeth. During the 1950s the palace was gutted and all the remaining interior, including the rooms and halls that were undamaged, were destroyed. In the southern room, a medieval stairway led to a trapdoor and a medieval toilet hidden in the empty space between the walls of the castle and the keep. The low-lying southern wing of the Gothic palace was also reconstructed, together with the vaulted Gothic Hall and the Lower Church of the former Royal Chapel. This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 03:48. The damaged statue was removed during the 1960s, but it was later restored and erected in the western forecourt of the palace in 1983, next to the Matthias Fountain. The Gothic Hall is one of the most important surviving examples of secular Gothic architecture in Central Europe. The southern fortifications, zwingers and rooms were buried under tons of rubbish and earth. vizuális kultúra", "Index – Tudomány – Kincsekre bukkantak a budai Várban", "Origo -A budai várgarázs befejezéséhez 1,3 milliárd forintot ad a kormány", https://colnect.com/en/stamps/stamp/180760-Palace_of_Buda-Palace_of_Buda-Hungary, https://colnect.com/en/stamps/stamp/134434-Diesel_Ship_Hunyadi_Buda_Castle_Hungarian_Flag-Danube_Commission-Hungary, https://colnect.com/en/stamps/stamp/169712-Buda_Castle_cable_railway_reopening-Events-Hungary, Károli Gáspár University of Reformed Church, Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport, Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma, Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Buda_Castle&oldid=997130917, Buildings and structures completed in 1265, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2013, Articles with Hungarian-language sources (hu), Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Jean Nicolas Jadot, Miklós Ybl, Alajos Hauszmann. The small Queen Elisabeth Memorial Museum (Erzsébet Királyné Emlékmúzeum) on the second floor of the Krisztinaváros Wing was established in remembrance of Queen Elisabeth after her murder in 1898. The remains were then buried under the new Baroque terrace for two centuries. The nuns moved out and the palace was hastily adapted to use as a university. The central part of the room was much longer than the bays at the ends. All six vaults are quadripartite, and the two on the inner side are irregularly shaped. The castle is a part of the Budapest World Heritage Site, so declared in 1987. This passage was separated from the Buffet Hall by six square pillars, while its other side was a solid wall with three doors. These are important both structurally and architecturally, since they were built as underground burial chambers with memorial chapels above the ground. Nowadays it is probably the most photographed object in the palace. The original Christian Hungarian population didn't feel secure during the Ottoman conquest, their numbers significantly shrank in the next decades, due to their fleeing to the Habsburg ruled Royal Hungary. They are the work of Károly Senyei. The ingenious idea to create the catacombs was decided upon, as a way to dispose of remains out of sight. In 1896 the building reached the level of the court, and King Franz Joseph ceremoniously laid down the foundation stone of the palace, which was soon completed. In the Baroque era it was called Zweytes Audienz Zimmer ("second audience room"). There are sepulchral monuments in the Palatinal Crypt decorated with the statues of György Zala, Alajos Stróbl and Károly Senyei. Many of the statues survived the destruction during the siege of Budapest in 1944–45 and were later restored. It was destroyed during the 1950s, together with the great coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Hungary which originally crowned the façade. Hillebrand altered the cour d'honneur façade of the central wing in Rococo style. It was furnished with a crystal chandelier and a long dining table with 12 chairs. In 1867, Budapest became a joint capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire alongside Vienna. The chief commander lodged in the royal palace. The ceiling of the hallway was stuccoed, and the whole design was Italian Renaissance in style. During post-war reconstruction, this part of the façade (with a broken stone doorway) was not reconstructed. The formerly open cour d'honneur became a closed court with an arched gateway, guarded by the four lions of the sculptor, János Fadrusz.  No decision has been reached about the realization of the development plan. Two semi-nude figures sat at her side, one male and one female, representing Industry and Commerce. Ambitious urban planning projects were carried out to express the growing wealth and higher status of the Hungarian capital, with special attention being paid to the rebuilding of Buda Castle. The Stephen's Tower, used as a gunpowder store by the Ottomans, exploded when hit by a single cannon, said to have been fired by a friar called Gábor, also referred as Tüzes Gábor ("Gabriel Fiery"). The network of tunnels is interesting in itself but there exhibitions are strange. The level difference between the plateau and the southern court was about 2.79 metres (9.2 ft). The old Chapel of the Holy Right was demolished to make room for a carriageway. your own Pins on Pinterest In the front, the false dome was removed and a four-storey observatory tower, planned by Alfred Hillebrandt or Karl Georg Zillack, was erected. 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