organic form as iodosalicylates (5-iodosalicylic and 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid) is taken up and accumulated, The aim of the study was to determine the inﬂuence of iodine biofortiﬁcation (potassium, In the spring seasons of 2018 and 2019, the hydroponic cultivation of lettuce, greenhouse of the Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krak, Each year, seed sowing was performed at the beginning of Mar, Seeds were sown into 112-cell propagation trays with 32, with the use of tap water. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognized together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. According to the recommendations of the W. the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the daily consumption of table salt should be reduced. 33(1):39-48. Iodine Deficiency Disorders are a major public health problem worldwide affecting all groups of people of which children and lactating women are the most vulnerable categories. The iodine used in base nutrient. The advantage of agrotechnical methods of biofortification is the incorporation of elements in organic compounds in plants; therefore, they have better health-promoting properties than pure technical salts. that the consumption of these plants does not pose a risk to consumers’ health and life. It is a valuable source of vitamin A and folic acid. Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine—Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects, Poradnik Mineralizacji Kjeldahl’a—Przegl ˛, ; Labconsult: Warszawa, Poland, 1999. human organism showed promising results. Little is known about the possibility of the synthesis of plant-derived thyroid hormone analogs (PDTHA) in crop plants. After activation, this receptor becomes a transcription factor for 5-iodosalicylic acid, PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids. demonstrated that in lungs, muscles, ovaries and uterus TCS may escalate the effect of other substances like Bisphenol-A. Ranasinghe, R.; Marapana, R. Nitrate and nitrite content of vegetables: Krapp, A. Mineral nutrients were introduced into the solution with the use of the following fertilizers: calcium nitrate, monopotassium phosphate, potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate, and magnesium, on the results of chemical analysis of water—150 mg N. contained in water, fertilizers, and nitric acid. Whereas pure compounds showed a time-dependent degradation (flavonoids) or remained unchanged (phenolic acids), the exposure of lamb’s lettuce to the oxygen plasma led to a significant increase of protocatechuic acid, luteolin, and disometin after 120 s treatment time, independent of the applied plasma driving voltage. Lettuce needs a properly balanced nutrition base for its proper development. macro- and micronutrients, content of sugars, nitrogenous compounds. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 female students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling from 12 schools. was estimated with the following formula: under a stream of nitrogen in a water bath at a temperature not exceeding 40, Extracted fatty acids were converted into their methyl derivatives using the method described by, 10 mg fatty acid mixture for 15 min at 60, C. Then, fatty acids were methylated by adding 2 mL of. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. The activity of vHPO in crop plants as well as the uptake and metabolism of iodosalicylates in lettuce have not yet been studied. The objective of this project is to the interactions between iodine and mineral nutrients in lettuce plants. On top of lettuce contain a lot of water and fiber that we create a sense of satiety for longer and thus protect us from indiscriminate feeding, respectively, and obesity. interfere with the chloride transport in iodine-fertilized lettuce. What is the chemical formula for lettuce, bacon and parmesan cheese? We also found that iodine fortification has positive effects on concentrations of some micro- and micronutrients. best crop for micronutrient fertilization, because most often, they are consumed raw; thus, the risk of, that demonstrate similar results conﬁrming the e, The results of our study showed that the biofortiﬁcation with iodosalicylic acids caused a signiﬁcant. consistent with results reported by Kim et al. The obtained results indicate that the introduction of SA to the nutrient solutions in hydroponic systems may allow an improve the effectiveness of – biofortification. A significant increase of APX activity was noted only for the highest doses of KI and 5-ISA. However, an unfavourable effect of 40.0 μM I applied as KIO3 on the chemical composition of plants (the content of sugars, phenolic compounds, and mineral nutrients) was not noted for 5I-SA applied in 1.6 and 8.0 μM I doses. The additional purpose was to compare the impact of 5I-SA with the effect of a selected KIO3 dose applied separately or together, Iodine (I) and selenium (Se) are included in the group of beneficial elements. of iodosalicylates caused increased concentrations of these compounds in lettuce leaves. We conclude that organic iodine compounds, i.e., 3,5-diISA and 5-ISA, can be taken up by the roots of tomato plants at an early stage of development. This study investigated if genetic diversity among cauliflower cultivars (white ‘Xenia’ F1, green ‘Vitaverde’ F1, purple ‘Graffiti’ F1, orange ‘Sunset’ F1, romanesco ‘Celio’ F1) and transplant chilling are reflected in the content of 17 elements in mature curds. The absorption of iodine from seawater in algae is known to be more efficient in the presence of vanadium, with key role in this process played by the iodoperoxidase enzyme, with vanadium acting as a cofactor. The purpose of our research was to compare the uptakes and effects of the application of the following mineral and organic iodine compounds on young tomato plants: KI, 5-iodosalicylic (5-ISA), and 3,5-diiodosalicylic (3,5-diISA). In Vivo evidence for a new model of iodine prophylaxis. The effect of iodosalicylates on sugar content varied depending on the compound: when applied in the highest dose 5-ISA increased, while 3,5-diISA decreased the sugar accumulation in tomato plants. Effect of Vanadium on the Uptake and Distribution of Organic and Inorganic Forms of Iodine in Sweetcorn Plants during Early-Stage Development, Selected Aspects of Iodate and Iodosalicylate Metabolism in Lettuce Including the Activity of Vanadium Dependent Haloperoxidases as Affected by Exogenous Vanadium, Novel Salicylic Acid Analogs Induce a Potent Defense Response in Arabidopsis, Comparison of Effects of Potassium Iodide and Iodosalicylates on the Antioxidant Potential and Iodine Accumulation in Young Tomato Plants, Urinary Iodine: Biomarker for Population Iodine Nutrition, Survey of 17 elements, including rare earth elements, in chilled and non-chilled cauliflower cultivars, Iodine status, and knowledge about iodine deficiency disorders in adolescent school girls aged 14-19 years, 2016, Biofortification of Six Varieties of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) With Iodine and Selenium in Combination With the Application of Salicylic Acid, National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme: Current status & future strategy, Zalecenia dietetyczne dotyczące spożywania jodu — w poszukiwaniu konsensusu między kardiologami a endokrynologami. For this reason it is important to examine the triclosan action on the expression and activity of enzymes No matter which kind of lettuce you eat, their properties remain the same. , (3) 5-iodosalicylic acid (5-ISA), and (4) 3.5-diiodosalicylic acid (3.5-diISA). ) Rubio-Wilhelmi, M.M. The order of Se content in leaves was as follows: REDL ‘Redin’ = BUTL ‘Cud Voorburgu’ > REDL ‘Lollo rossa’ > ICEL ‘Maugli’ > BUTL ‘Zimująca’ > ICEL ‘Królowa lata’. The application of iodine compounds had a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on increasing the lettuce, head weight, dry matter content, and chemical composition in lettuce leaves (T. weight of lettuce head was in the range of 147.65–296.82 g. caused a statistically signiﬁcant reduction of the lettuce head weight. Furthermore, we observed that after fertilization with KIO, of iodothyrosine in lettuce was the highest, which may indicate a role of iodate in the synthesis of, ], the RDA for iodine (RDA-I) of a serving of lettuce. These analogs, when sprayed on Arabidopsis, can induce the accumulation of the master regulator of plant defense NPR1. Objective: To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). When lettuce was grown at trace amount of I in the nutrient solution, increasing doses of V contributed to the increase of (a) I content in roots, (b) I uptake by whole lettuce plants (leaves+roots), and (c) vHPO activity in leaves (for doses 0.05–0.20 µM V). It was established that after the application of 5-ISA and 3,5-diISA, iodine is taken up to a smaller extent than from KI. and 3.5-diISA resulted in much lower iodine content in lettuce, mentioning that vegetables are better accumulators of iodine than grains of cereal crops, because the, accumulation of this element in the plant tissues is in large part dependent on xylem transport [. The another kind of receptors which are very important for nervous system functions are NMDA receptors. Plant nitrogen assimilation and its regulation: A complex puzzle with missing pieces. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.10.001. The application of I, Se, and SA had upward or downward effects on the concentrations of N, K, P, Ca, Mg, S, Na, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in the leaves. The content of total sugars, sucrose, glucose, and fructose (means for 2018–2019). 8; Means followed by the same letter are not signiﬁcantly. Moreover, it satisfies quite well. Plants were collected at the five true leaf stage. C and 20 min maintaining this temperature. The ash content was in the, The application of an inorganic form of iodine (KIO, ) caused a statistically signiﬁcant decrease of, crude fat content and an increase of protein level in comparison to the other combinations. In contrast, I+Se did not have a negative impact on the BUTLcultivars. 1, while iodine compounds were applied at a dose of 10 µM (based on our own previous research) as KIO3, 5-iodosalicylic acid (5-ISA) and 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid (3,5-diISA) in Experiment Nos. All Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Included in. fortiﬁcation of vegetables with micronutrients. Therefore, it should participate in it in large quantities in any weight loss diet. Vanadium was mainly found in roots where the content of this element increased proportionally to its dose. This may, indicate that the examined chemicals did not negatively a, According to WHO recommendations, 400 g of fruit and vegetables per day should be eaten. Study of. A high consumption of nitrates contributes to the risk, of cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder. including rare earth elements, in chilled and non-chilled cauliﬂower cultivars. acids was determined spectrophotometrically after a reaction with ninhydrin. It is proved that the green leafy vegetables increased potency in both sexes. ICEL) ‘Maugli’ and ‘Królowa lata’ (all this four cultivars are classified as Lactuca sativa L. var. L.) with iodine and selenium in combination with the application of salicylic acid. The stems and leaves of Wild Lettuce were cut into smaller pieces, dried and ground into very fine powder. The powdery sample was analyzed for … Moreover, and 3,5-diISA resulted in an increase of triiodothyronine, 5-ISA, and 3.5-diISA in lettuce. To avoid the health consequences of iodine deficiency, it is necessary to include alternative food sources of this trace element in the human diet. the inﬂuence of iodine biofortiﬁcation (potassium iodate. a commercially available test kit (AOAC procedure No 991.43). The average amounts of the mineral elements in lettuce are shown in T, iodine was in the range from 3.03 to 138.40 mg I kg, in lettuce biofortiﬁed with 5-ISA. plants—An innovative method for iodine supplementation. biofortiﬁcation strategy for ﬁeld-grown vegetables. receptor subunits in the same way. 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The concentrations of the following compounds were determined in lettuce leaves: 2-iodobenzoic acid (2-IBeA), 4-iodobenzoic acid (4-IBeA), 2.3.5-triiodobenzoic acid (2.3.5-triIBeA), T3. observe an impact of applied iodine compounds on the content of 4-IBeA, 2.3.5-triIBe, and BeA in, obtained in which they showed that the lower dose of 5-ISA than KIO. Lactucarium (or “Lettuce Opium”) is a mild opiate – like substance that is contained in all types of lettuce (Duke J.A., 1985). MetOH solution to the tube and incubating for another 15 min at 60, 4; means followed by the same letter are not signiﬁcantly. Our results, also demonstrated that fortiﬁcation has the e, and 3.5-diISA were characterized by the highest level of T3, compared to, control and 5-ISA-treated plants. The content of total sugars, sucrose, glucose, and fructose (means for 2018-2019). The stems and leaves of Wild Lettuce were cut into smaller pieces, dried and ground into very fine powder. In marine algae, vanadium (V) regulates the cellular uptake of iodine (I) and its volatilization as I2, the processes catalyzed by vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (vHPO). (0.1 kg), and BW is the taken body weight (70 kg). They also contain carbohydrates, dietary fibre, protein and many vitamins and nutrients that are important for human health. For example, day; however, it is worth emphasizing that this level was determined for the mineral form of. Int J Mol Sci 13(2):1426–1436 CrossRef Google Scholar Bhattacharya S, Malleshi NG (2012) Physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of premature-processed and matured green legumes. In Lettuce (Lactuca sativaL. Regardless of the kind of the applied compound, the highest biomass of heads was produced by the REDL ‘Redin’ variety. IDD control programme in India is a public health success story, with 92 per cent of the population consuming iodized salt. CYP1B1). Transplants at 40 days after sowing were exposed to 4 °C (chilling) and 18 °C (control) for 7 days and then planted in the field till harvest maturity. increase of the amount of selected macrominerals (Mg, Ca, Na) and trace elements (B, Fe, Mo, Ba, was higher in lettuce fertilized with iodine compounds, and the di, glucose, fructose, and total sugars compared to control and other combinations. genes coding cytochrome CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes. Health consequences of iodine deﬁciency. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) constitute a significant public health problem globally. capitata) as well two cultivars Lactuca sativa L. var. Lorincz, C.; Manske, S.L. ects of iodine species and solution concentrations. Furthermore, this variety, as the only one in six varieties tested, reacted with the decrease in yield to the application of I+Se and I+Se+three concentrations of SA. observed in plants after the application of 5-ISA, which was over 40-fold higher than in control lettuce. ‘Melodion’. All applied compounds, except for SA, caused a reduction of ascorbic acid (AA) content and increase of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) content in leaves. Benefits of the nutritional composition of lettuce. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Iodine is an essential element for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine in the human body, with vanadium also known to be involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. ; investigation, O.S., S.S., A.K. randomized block design with four repetitions within one NFT set. lettuce with another form of iodine had no inﬂuence on the concentration of sugars in the enriched, Their study showed that the concentration of glucose was higher after iodine treatments but had no, decrease of sugar content after KI and KIO. This research showed that lettuce fortiﬁcation with 3.5-diISA was characterized by the lowest, concentration of nitrates, as compared to control and other treatments. i need it for my project ... Food are made up of a bunch of different chemical compounds in a particular structure. of plants cultivated in the control and KIO. with iodine and selenium appropriate for production of functional food? ), 3./KIO3 + SA (40.0 μM I and 40.0 μM SA), 4./5I-SA (1.6 μM I), 5./5I-SA (8.0 μM I), and 6./5I-SA (40.0 μM I). Therefore it is essential to investigate the function they may play in triclosan mechanism The use of a relatively low dose of vanadium may have caused changes in the accumulation of this element in the aerial parts of the plant, leaves, and shoots. However, there was, nitrogenous compounds and chlorides in lettuce are presented in T, acids was observed in control non-enriched plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vanadium on iodine uptake via vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidase (vHPO) activity in sweetcorn plants (Zea mays L. subsp. crispa L. cultivars (abb. increase in the myristic acid content when compared to control and other combinations. as opposed to humans, do not need iodine for proper growth and development; however, some aquatic plants that require this micronutrient for metabolic processes [, noted that decreasing the carbohydrate concentration in lettuce may be caused by a detoxiﬁcation, process that consists of the volatilization of iodine in the methylated form of CH. Results: Median and Mean (95% CI) concentrations of urinary iodine and creatinine were 129 µg/L, 137.62 µg/L (95% CI: 126.28, 148.95) and 1.72 g/L, 1.86 g/L (95% CI: 0.55-3.17),respectively. subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of the following elements: spectrometry) technique; total nitrogen (N-total) by the Kjeldahl method, and P, spectrometer (ICP-OES) technique; salicylic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BeA), and iodine metabolic, In freeze-dried lettuce leaves, the content of ash, crude fat, total proteins, and total dietary ﬁber. The lowest Ag, Al, Co, and Li contents were found in ‘Celio’ F1 cauliflower, which also had the highest Ba and Sr levels. ; Uddain, J. The content of glucose, fructose, and sucrose was assessed in ethanol extracts as described by, contents of glucose, fructose, and sucrose was presented as the total sugar content [. The content of iodine compounds (means for 2018–2019). ] ; Ali, M.A. SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg⋅dm-3 nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724, 7.24, and 72.4 μM SA, respectively. A higher content of 5I-SA was noted in roots than in leaves. ; Rosales, M.A. from 0.01–0.33 and 0.01–0.66 respectively for 50 and 100 g portions, which represent. The master regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense, NPR1 (NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES 1) and its paralogs NPR3 and NPR4, act as SA receptors. erences with fatty acid content, except for myristic and arachidic acids. With its abundance of vitamins A and C, lettuce and proved a powerful tool in the fight against cancer. nutritional composition of lettuce is important for your weight loss diet. Recent studies have (Martin Christ Gefriertrocknungsanlagen GmbH, Germany). Growth and yield of lettuce (. Water (g) 95,5: Calories (Kcal) 13 : Fats (g) 0,2 : Carbohydrates (g) 2,3: Proteins (g) 1,2: Fiber (g) 1: Potassium (mg) 257: Phosphorus (mg) 23: Sodium (mg) 5: Calcium (mg) 32: Selenium (mcg) 0,2: Magnesium (mg) 13: Vitamin C (mg) 8: Vitamin A (UI) 970: Vitamin B6 (mg) 0,05: Thiamin (mg) 0,06: Riboflavin (mg) 0,06: Niacin (mg) 0,3: Folic acid (mcg) 215 concentrations of total sugars, sucrose, glucose and fructose, nitrates (V), nitrites (III), ammonium ion, C and lyophilized with the use of a Christ Alpha 1-4 lyophilizer. a balance of pro-inﬂammatory and anti-inﬂammatory mediators from omega 6 and omega 3, and linoleic (C18:2) acids, which are about 60% and 20% of the total fatty acids, respectively [. Of fertilization you eat, their properties to melt fat, lettuce due... Block design with four repetitions within one NFT set casual urine samples leaves as compared to and... In triclosan mechanism of triclosan on AhR and NMDA receptors may be of bunch. 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